From a fall height of 1.0 m, proof of fall protection is required for window elements and fixed glazing with parapets that are not sufficiently high. Fall protection is regulated nationally.
Fall-preventing elements made of glass are regulated in DIN 18008-4. The standard differentiates here in three categories A, B and C, and is generally based on the once applicable rules of the TRAV.
Explanation of the individual categories:
Glazing that supports horizontal live loads, as it does not have a load-bearing parapet or front-mounted protection such as a handrail or rail at the height required to support horizontal live loads in accordance with DIN EN 1991-1-1.
Glass supported at the bottom e.g. parapets, the individual glass panes are connected by a continuous handrail at the necessary height.
Glass infill panels for railings that do not have to transfer horizontal live loads. The load transfer is taken over by the railing.
Glazing above which there is a load-bearing transom, e.g. handrail or bar, at the required height, which does not have to bear horizontal live loads at the required height.
Glazing with a load-bearing bar in front at the required height, which does not have to bear horizontal loads at the required height.
The proof for fall-proof glazing is provided by two verifications.
The static part (= limit state of load-bearing capacity for static actions) and the so-called “pendulum impact” (= limit state of load-bearing capacity for impact-type actions).
Limit state of load-bearing capacity for static actions
The verification is carried out by a structural engineer taking into account relevant standards, including the standards from DIN 18008-4. Glass statics and system statics must be verified.
Limit state for impact loads
The verification is carried out by two impacts with a twin tyre (pendulum). The impact field is selected according to DIN 18008-4. The most unfavourable hit point is selected. Open glass edges must be secured with edge protection. If the edge protection does not correspond to the sample edge protection from DIN 18008-4, it must be tested before the test with the twin tyre. The test is carried out with a steel ball and an impact energy of 10 Nm or 20 Nm (depending on the category). The impact points are to be selected on edge protection at the height of the impact points of the twin tyre. The test is then carried out with the twin tyre. The drop height depends on the category (A=900 mm, B=700 mm, C=450 mm). If the pane does not break due to the impact of the tyre, it is to be broken with granular blows and the residual load-bearing capacity is to be tested with another impact of the twin tyre from a drop height of 100 mm. The requirements for the glass from DIN 18008-4 must be met. In categories A and C, single glazing is only permitted in laminated safety glass VSG. In category B, only VSG glazing may be used. In category A, at least one pane in multiple-pane insulating glazing must be laminated safety glass. If there is a ESG pane on the attack side in multi-pane insulating glazing category A and C, coarsely breaking glass types (e.g. float) may be included directly behind this pane (provided no glass breakage of the ESG pane occurs during pendulum impact).
In category C (i.e. C1 and C2), in multi-pane insulating glazing on the attack side, the pane shall be at least VSG, ESG or VSG made of ESG . For category C3, the glass requirements of category A apply.